Cooling tower makeup water
In evaporative cooling towers, fresh water is used as make-up water to replenish the cooling water following evaporation. Instead of applying fresh water, the concentrated cooling water (containing anti-scalants and other water treatment chemicals with an osmotic potential) can be used directly as a draw solution in a forward osmosis process. A low-quality stream of waste water, brackish or even sea water can be used as feed, to produce makeup water at a fraction of the energy consumption.
Ultrapure water installations typically include reverse osmosis as an early treatment step, before ion exchange and polishing. Aquaporin Inside™ membranes can benefit ultrapure water system designs in two ways. Firstly, the higher water flux of our membranes can reduce footprint or energy consumption or improve capacity. Further, the better rejections of Aquaporin Inside™ membranes can improve the removal of troublesome neutral organics and minimize the need for polishing steps.